What do Pediatric Urologists Treat?

Pediatric urologists treat children (and occasionally adults) with reconstructive problems related to the genitourinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, vagina, genitalia). Such patients might have any one of a number of conditions, including congenital malformations of the genitalia or urinary tract, or new or acquired diseases of the genitourinary tract. Complications arising from circumcision are also commonly seen. We also commonly see women carrying fetuses with apparent urinary tract malformations noted on prenatal ultrasound, i.e. hydronephrosis (water retention in the kidney). Common problems include:

  • Hypospadias
  • Chordee (penile curvature)
  • Epispadias
  • Bladder Exstrophy
  • Intersex Disorders (ambiguous genitalia)
  • Hydronephrosis
  • Vesicoureteral Reflux
  • Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction
  • Ureterovesical Junction Obstruction
  • Ureterocele
  • Undescended Testicles (cryptorchidism)
  • Varicocele
  • Inguinal Hernia
  • Hydrocele
  • Umbilical Hernia
  • Urachal Malformations (patent urachus, urachal cyst)
  • Bladder Diverticulum
  • Dysfunctional Voiding (Hinman’s Syndrome)
  • Urinary Tract Infection
  • Bedwetting (nocturnal enuresis)
  • Daywetting (bladder instability or bladder spasms)
  • Botched Circumcision
  • Encopresis
  • Posterior Urethral Valves
  • Anterior Urethral Valves
  • Vaginal Duplication
  • Imperforate Hymen
  • Labial Adhesions
  • Hematuria (blood in the urine)
  • Proteinuria (protein in the urine)
  • Crystalluria (crystals in the urine)
  • Kidney Stones
  • Genitourinary Cancers (e.g. testicular cancer, Wilm’s tumor,
  • Adrenal Hyperplasia (associated surgical problems such as
    clitoromegaly and fused labia)